Porifera Classification

ByDr. Girish Chandra


Subkingdom PARAZOA


There are about 5,000 species of sponge, mostly marine and few freshwater species. In sea they occur up to a depth of 8,500 m and mostly flourish in warm waters. Size can vary from a few cm to several metres. The body shape is highly variable.

Class CALCAREA (=CALCISPONGIAE).  Small marine sponges with calcareous spicules.

Subclass HOMOCOELA.  Choanocytes line the spongocoel. Ex.  Leucosolenia; Clathrina.

Subclass HETEROCOELA. Choanocytes line the radial canals. Ex.  Sycon;  Grantia.

Class HEXACTINELLIDA (=HYALOSPONGIAE). Marine glass sponges with 6-rays spicules.

Subclass HEXASTEROPHORA. Spicules hexasters, fused to form glass-like shiny vase. Found on hard surface. Ex. Euplectella.

Subclass AMPHIDISCOPHORA. Spicules amphidisc type, some form long spun glass type of root tuft to anchor on sandy bottom.  Ex. Hyalonema.

Class DEMOSPONGIAE. Massive frame sponges with sponging fibres and siliceous spicules.

Subclass TETRACTINELLIDA.  4-rayed spicules. No sponging. Ex. Oscarella; Plankina.

Subclass MONOAXONIDA. Monoaxon spicules. Spongin present or absent. Ex. Cliona; Halichondria; Heliclona; Chalina; Spongilla; Ephydatia.

Subclass KERATOSA. Only sponging fibres. Dark horny sponges with leathery surface. Ex. Euspongia; Hippospongia; Phyllospongia; Chondrilla; Proterion.


Latest Portfolio of Theory and Practice in Porifera

By (author): Brian Jenkins, Urmila Route, Girish Solanki

About the Book: Latest Portfolio of Theory and Practice in Porifera This book is structured to cover every aspectof the poriferaclass of species. This includes characters and classificationofporifera; general studies of sponges; skeleton in sponges;reproduction insponges; physiology of sponges; introduction to themetazoans; and more. Thebook also includes extensive theory, useful’points to remember’ sections, andnumerous true and false, fill inthe blanks and multiple choice questions forthe benefit ofstudents. Contents: 1. Characters & Classification of Porifera 2. General Studies of Sponges 3. Skeleton in Sponges 4. Reproduction in Sponges 5. Physiology of Sponges 6. Introduction to the Metazoans 7. Points to Remember 8. Multiple Choice Questions 9. Fill in the Blanks 10. True and False About the Author: Brian Jenkins, Urmila Route, Girish Solanki Urmila Route and Girish Solanki, both are presently Teaching inCentre for Career Development (CFCD), Meerut, to the studentspreparing for competitive exams and Professional courses. Route, analumni of Delhi University, did her early schooling in Jaipur.Having specialized in Limnology, she is teaching different branchesof Zoology for the last eight years. Girish Solanki, obtained Bachelor’s and Master’s degree from theUniversity of Rajasthan. After receiving his Doctorate inOstracods, he started teaching as a visiting fellow in variouscolleges. Solanki. presently settled in Meerut, is associated withCFCD for the last four years. Chief Editor : Brian Jenkins
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