Posts Tagged ‘zoology’

Cell Biology

Sunday, March 9th, 2008

CYTOLOGY

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Syllabus, Civil Services & Forest Services Exams

Thursday, April 26th, 2007

 

 

PRELIMINARY SYLLABUS

INDIAN CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATIONS

(UPSC)

 (With effect from 2011, the pattern of preliminary exam. has changed. There is no optional subject now. The change is notified as follows:

 

Changes in syllabus and pattern of the Preliminary Examination from
2011 in the scheme of Civil Services Examination

• As per the decision of Government of India, there shall be change in the syllabus and
pattern of the Preliminary Examination from 2011 in the scheme of the Civil Services
Examination.
• The Preliminary Examination shall now comprise of two compulsory Papers of 200
marks each and of two hours duration each. Detailed below is the new syllabus and
pattern of the Preliminary Examination, which is brought to the notice of the
prospective candidates intending to appear at the Civil Services Examination (CSE) in
2011 onwards:

Paper I – (200 marks). Duration: Two hours

• Current events of national and international importance
• History of India and Indian National Movement
• Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic geography
of India and the World.
• Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System,
Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
• Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development,
Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
• General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate
Change – that do not require subject specialization
• General Science.

Paper II- (200 marks). Duration: Two hours

• Comprehension
• Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
• Logical reasoning and analytical ability
• Decision making and problem solving
• General mental ability
• Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude
etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data
sufficiency etc. -Class X level)
• English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).
• Questions relating to English Language Comprehension skills of Class X level
(last item in the Syllabus of Paper-II) will be tested through passages from
English language only without providing Hindi translation thereof in the question
paper.
• The questions will be of multiple choice, objective type.

• A set of sample questions for both Papers are available on the UPSC website
http://www.upsc.gov.in for reference of the prospective candidates.

• The prospective candidates are advised to note that no changes are being introduced
at this stage in the Civil Services (Main) Examination and Personality Test in the
scheme of Civil Services Examination (CSE).

 

 

MAINS SYLLABUS

INDIAN CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATION

(UPSC)

ZOOLOGY

PAPER – I

                                                                                                               Section – A

 Non-chordata and Chordata

 

(a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses; Acoelomate and Coelomate; Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateralia and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry.

 

(b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction; evolution of sex; general

features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leishsmania.

 

(c) Porifera: Skeleton, canal system and reproduction.

 

(d) Cnidaria: Polymorphism, defensive structures and their mechanism; coral reefs and their formation; metagenesis; general features and life history of Obelia and Aurelia.

 

(e) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation; general features and life history of Fasciola and Taenia and their pathogenic symptoms.

 

(f) Nemathelminthes: General features, life history and parasitic adaptation of Ascaris and Wuchereria.

 

(g) Annelida: Coelom and metamerism; modes of life in polychaetes; general features and life history of Nereis, earthworm and leach.

 

(h) Arthropoda: Larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea; vision and respiration in arthropods (prawn, cockroach and scorpion); modification of mouth parts in insects (cockroach, mosquito, housefly, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insects and its hormonal regulation; social behaviour of Apis and termites.

 

(i) Mollusca: Feeding, respiration, locomotion, general features and life history of Lamellidens, Pila and Sepia, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.

 

j) Echinodermata: Feeding respiration, locomotion, larval forms; general features and life history of Asterias.

 

(k) Protochordata: Origin of chordates; general features and life history of Banchiostoma and Herdamania.

 

(l) Pisces: Respiration, locomotion and migration.

 

(m) Amphibia: Origin of tetrapods; parental care, paedomorphosis.

 

(n) Reptilia: Origin of reptiles; skull types; status of Sphenodon and crocodiles.

 

(o) Aves: Origin of birds; flight adaptation, migration.

 

(p) Mammalia: Origin of mammals; dentition; general features of egg laying mammals,  pouched-mammals, aquatic mammals and primates; endocrine glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.

 

(q) Comparative functional anatomy of various systems of vertebrates (integument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, locomotory organs, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system, including heart and aortic arches; urino-genital system, brain and sense organs (eye and ear).

 

 Section – B

 Ecology

 

(a) Biosphere: Concept of biosphere; biomes, Biogeochemical cycles, Human induced changes in atmosphere including green house effect, ecological succession, biomes and ecotones, community ecology.

 

(b) Concept of ecosystem; structure and function of ecosystem, types of ecosystem, ecological succession, ecological adaptation.

 

(c) Population, characteristics, population dynamics, population stabilization.

 

(d) Biodiversity and diversity conservation of natural resources.

 

(e) Wildlife of India.

 

(f) Remote sensing for sustainable development.

 

(g) Environmental biodegradation; pollution and its impact on biosphere and its prevention.

 

 Ethology

 

 (a) Behaviour: Sensory filtering, responsiveness, sign stimuli, learning and memory, instinct, habituation, conditioning, imprinting.

 

(b) Role of hormones in drive; role of pheromones in alarm spreading; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social hierarchies in primates, social organization in insects.

 

(c) Orientation, navigation, homing; biological rhythms; biological clock, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythms.

 

(d) Methods of studying animal behaviour including sexual conflict, selfishness, kinship and altruism.

 

 Economic Zoology

 

(a) Apiculture, sericulture, lac culture, carp culture, pearl culture, prawn culture, vermiculture.

 

(b) Major infectious and communicable diseases (malaria, filaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their vectors, pathogens and prevention.

 

(c) Cattle and livestock diseases, their pathogens (helminthes) and vectors (ticks, mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys).

 

d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusilla), oil seed (Achaea janata) and rice (Sitophilus oryzae).

 

(e) Transgenic animals.

(f) Medical biotechnology, human genetic disease and genetic counselling, gene therapy.

 

(g) Forensic biotechnology.

 

 Biostatistics  

 

Designing of experiments; null hypothesis; correlation, regression, distribution and measure of central tendency, chi square, student t-test, F-test (one-way & two-way F-test).

 

 Instrumental methods

 

(a) Spectrophotometer, phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, radioactive tracer, ultra centrifuge, gel electrophoresis, PCR, ELISA, FISH and chromosome painting.

 

(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).

           

PAPER – II

Section – A

 

Cell Biology

 

(a) Structure and function of cell and its organelles (nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and lysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus, chromosome movement, chromosome type polytene and lampbrush, organization of chromatin, heterochromatin, cell cycle regulation.

 

(b) Nucleic acid topology, DNA motif, DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, translation, protein foldings and transport.

 

Genetics

 

(a)  Modern concept of gene, split gene, genetic regulation, genetic code.

 

(b) Sex chromosomes and their evolution, sex determination in Drosophilla and man.

 

(c) Mendel's laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, multiple alleles, genetics of blood groups, pedigree analysis, hereditary diseases in man.

 

(d) Mutations and mutagenesis.

 

(e) Recombinant DNA technology; plasmid, cosmid, artificial chromosomes as vectors, transgenics, DNA cloning and whole animal cloning (Principles and methods).

 

(f) Gene regulation and expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

 

(g) Signal molecules; cell death, defects in signalling pathway and consequences.

 

(h) RFLP, RAPD and AFLP and application of RFLP in DNA finger printing, ribozyme technologies, human genome project, genomics and protomics.

 

Evolution

 

(a) Theories of origin of life.

 

(b) Theories of evolution; Natural selection, role of mutation in evolution, evolutionary patterns; molecular drive, mimicry, variation, isolation and speciation.

 

(c) Evolution of horse, elephant and man using fossil data.

 

(d) Hardy-Weinberg law.

(e) Continental drift and distribution of animals.

 

Systematics

 

Zoological nomenclature; international code; cladistics, molecular taxonomy and biodiversity.

 
 

Section – B

 Biochemistry

 

(a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids and cholesterol, proteins and amino acids, nucleic acids. Bioenergetics.

 

(b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation; energy conservation and release, ATP cycle, cyclic AMP – its structure and role.

 

(c) Hormone classification (steroid and peptide hormones), biosynthesis and function.

 

(d) Enzymes: types and mechanisms of action.

 

(e) Vitamins and co-enzymes.

 

(f) Immunoglobulin and immunity.

 
 

Physiology (with special reference to mammals).

 

(a) Composition and constituents of blood; blood groups and Rh factor in man; factors and mechanism of coagulation; iron metabolism, acid-base balance, thermo- regulation, anticoagulants.

 

(b) Haemoglobin: Composition, types and role in transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

 

(c) Digestion and absorption: Role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands.

 

(d) Excretion: nephron and regulation of urine formation; osmoregulation and excretory product.

 

(e) Muscles: Types, mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles, effects of exercise on muscles.

 

(f) Neuron: nerve impulse—its conduction and synaptic transmission; neurotransmitters.

 

(g) Vision, hearing and olfaction in man.

 

(h) Physiology of reproduction, puberty and menopause in human.

 

 Developmental Biology

 

(a) Gametogenesis; spermatogenesis, composition of semen, in vitro and in vivo capacitation of mammalian sperm, oogenesis, totipotency; fertilization, morphogenesis and morphogen, blastogenesis, establishment of body axes formation, fate map, gastrulation in frog and chick; genes in development in chick, homeotic genes, development of eye and heart; placenta in mammals.

 

 (b) Cell lineage; cell to cell interaction, Genetic and induced teratogenesis, role of thyroxine in control of metamorphosis in amphibia, Paedogenesis and neoteny, cell death, aging.

 

(c) Developmental genes in man, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, cloning.

 

(d) Stem cells: Sources, types and their use in human welfare.

 

(e) Biogenetic law.

 

 

 INDIAN FOREST SERVICE EXAMINATION 

             The competitive examination for the Indian Forest Service comprises two parts, namely, the written examination and the personality test through an interview.

Written Examination 

            The written examination consists of the following papers:

Paper I            General English 300 marks

Paper II           General Knowledge    300 marks

Paper III and IVOptional subject no. 1 from the list given below.   

Paper V and VIOptional subject no. 2 from the list given below.                       

 

                             Optional subjects carry 200 marks each.

 Interview or Personality Test

            This test is meant for those candidates who pass the written test and are short-listed for the interview.  It carries 300 marks.

 List of Optional Subjects

i)     Agriculture

ii)    Agricultural Engineering

iii)   Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science

iv)   Botany

v)   Chemistry

vi)  Chemical Engineering

vii)  Civil Engineering

viii)  Forestry

ix)   Geology

x)    Mathematics

xi)   Mechanical Engineering

xii)  Physics

xiii) Statistics

xiv) Zoology

 The candidates will not be allowed to offer the following combination of subjects:  

(a) Agriculture and Agricultural Engineering

(b) Agriculture and Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science

(c) Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

(d) Mathematics and Statistics

(e) Of the Engineering subjects viz. Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, not more than one subject is allowed.

  Note: The standard and syllabi of the subjects mentioned above are same as for the Indian Civil Services Examinations. 

General 

1. All the question papers for the examination will be of conventional (essay) type.

2. ALL QUESTION PAPERS MUST BE ANSWERED IN ENGLISH. QUESTION            PAPERS WILL BE SET IN ENGLISH ONLY.

3. The duration of each of the papers    referred to above will be three hours.

4. Candidates must write the papers in their own hand. In no circumstances, will they be  allowed the help of a scribe to write the answers for them.

5. The Commission has discretion to fix the qualifying marks in any or all the subjects of             examination.

6. If a candidate's handwriting is not easily legible, a deduction will be made on this account from the total marks otherwise accruing to him.

7.  Marks will not be allotted for mere superficial knowledge.

8. Credit will be given for orderly, effective and exact expression, combined with due     economy of words in all subjects of the examination.

9. In the question papers, wherever required. SI units will be used.

10. Candidates should use only international form of Indian numerals (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 etc.) while answering question papers.

11. Candidates will be allowed the use of scientific (Non-Programmable type) calculators at the conventional type examination of UPSC. Programmable type calculators   will, however, not be allowed and the use of such calculators shall tantamount to malpractice.

 

Veterinary Zoology

Sunday, March 4th, 2007

ANIMAL DISEASES

         Animals suffer from a variety of diseases like humans. In animal husbandry, poultry, and pets it is important to know the symptoms of diseases so that timely treatment can be done.  Many animal diseases are described briefly under the following headings.

Viral diseases of animals

Bacterial diseases of animals

Protozoan diseases of animals

Helminthic diseases of animals