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ByDr. Girish Chandra

Ecology & Environment



       Ecology is a science to study organisms living in an environment and interacting with it and among themselves. It gives importance to both living and non-living components that affect each other.

     The following topics are covered in this section. Click on the title to open. 


Ecology And Environment

By (author): P D Sharma

1. Introduction 2. Climatic and Topographic Factors 3. Edaphic Factors (Soil Science) 4. Biotic Factor 5. Ecological Adaptations 6. Autecology of Species 7. Population – Structure and Dynamics 8. Community-Structure and Classification
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ByDr. Girish Chandra

General Information



       This site is aimed to help students and others interested in the study of zoology and preparation for various competitive examinations. Generally the information given in this website is available free for download but some information may be password protected. However, commercial use of the information is probibited.

      Also see the following websites–




Indian Administrative Service

India Foreign Service

Indian Police Service 

 Group A Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service Indian Audit and Accounts Service Indian Customs and Central Excise Service Indian Defence Accounts Service Indian Revenue Service Indian Ordnance Factories Service (Assistant Works Manager, non-technical) Indian Postal Service Indian Civil Accounts Service Indian Railway Traffic Service Indian Railway Accounts Service Indian Railway Personnel Service Posts of Assistant Security Officer in Railway Protection Force (RPF) Indian Defence Estates Service Indian Information Service (Junior Grade)  

Group – B Railway Board Secretariat Service (Section Officer's Grade) Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service (Section Officer's Grade) Customs Appraisers' Service

Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service and Police Service Pondicherry Civil Service 



The Preliminary Examination is meant to serve  as screening test and has all objective type of questions. This examination is conducted according to the following pattern— With effect from 2011, the pattern of preliminary exam. has changed. There will be no optional subject in prelim. exam. now and the two papers will be as follows:


PAPER SUBJECT                                       DURATION             MARKS
I General Studies/Current events        2 hrs    200
II Comprehension/Reasoning         2 hrs    200


I.  General Studies paper includes Current events of national and international importance; History of India and Indian National Movement;  Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic geography of India and the World.  Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System. Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.  Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development. Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate. General Science.


II. Comprehension & Reasoning paper includes Comprehension Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
Logical reasoning and analytical ability.  Decision making and problem solving.  General mental ability.  Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc.) (Class X level). Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data
sufficiency etc. -Class X level).  English Language Comprehension skills (Class X level).



IAS Mains Examination


The Civil Services Examination, 2013 will consist of the following:

  • The Civil Services Preliminary Examination (Objective Type) for the selection of candidates for the Main Examination
  • Civil Services Main Examination ( will consist of 7 written papers) and
  • A Final Interview for those who pass the Main Exam.

      Following is a tabulated form of the papers one shall have to opt for :

Paper No.

Paper Title


Paper I

Section I :  Essay


Section II:  English Comprehension and English Precis, X level


Paper II

General Studies-I,  Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society


Paper III

General Studies-II,  Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations


Paper IV

General Studies-III,  Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management


Paper V

General Studies-IV,   Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude 


Paper VI

Optional Subject – Paper 1


Paper VII

Optional Subject – Paper 2


                                                                 Total marks in mains written exam.                                                   1800

                           Personality Test (for those who clear the mains exam.)                                                   275 marks

                           Grand Total:                                                                                                                    2075 marks


      Those who are declared by the Commission as qualified in the Preliminary Examination are eligible for appearing in the Mains Examination of that year, and those who clear the mains exam. will be called for interview or Personality Test.

      From preliminary exams, 12-13 times the number of posts are selected as qualified to appear in the mains exam.

     In 2012, 2674 candidates were selected from the mains and were called for interview.


ByDr. Girish Chandra

Yoga to improve learning



           Yoga is an entirely different concept of improving learning and memory and general upkeep of health and mental alertness. Physical exercises that involve skeletal muscles enhance respiratory rate and blood circulation but cause oxygen debt in the body and increase lactic acid concentration in blood and muscles and hence do not benefit the endocrine glands, smooth muscles and nerves. Yoga is the only method by which you can oxygenate nerves, stimulate parasympathatic system and tone up endocrine glands, thus maintain balanced metabolism. Pranayama is a good technique to combat fatique and gain control over mind and body. Transcendental meditation can rejuvenate brain by removing mental fatigue in ten minutes. Those engaged in strenuous mental work must practice transcendental meditation for ten minutes every four hours to get rid of mental fatigue.

     This section deals with the physiological effects of yoga on the body and mind.  

      Look for the following topics in details.

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The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

By (author): Edwin F. Bryant

A landmark new translation and edition

Written almost two millennia ago, Patañjali’s work focuses on how to attain the direct experience and realization of the purusa: the innermost individual self, or soul. As the classical treatise on the Hindu understanding of mind and consciousness and on the technique of meditation, it has exerted immense influence over the religious practices of Hinduism in India and, more recently, in the West.

Edwin F. Bryant’s translation is clear, direct, and exact. Each sutra is presented as Sanskrit text, transliteration, and precise English translation, and is followed by Bryant’s authoritative commentary, which is grounded in the classical understanding of yoga and conveys the meaning and depth of the su-tras in a user-friendly manner for a Western readership without compromising scholarly rigor or traditional authenticity. In addition, Bryant presents insights drawn from the primary traditional commentaries on the sutras written over the last millennium and a half.

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